No, there is no rejection of pure titanium, in case of an immune response to this metal we would be talking about an extreme rarity. In practice it would be so extremely rare to find a person allergic to titanium that this risk can be considered negligible.
Taking into account the above, the success or failure of a dental implant treatment will be due to many other factors that have nothing to do with immune rejection.
What are the causes of failure of dental implants?
An implant may fail in the first phase of placement and integration into the bone by:
- Intra or post-operative infection
- Failure in Osseo integration (welding of the implant to the bone)
- Poor, incorrect or inadequate surgical technique
- Low quality implant, inadequate surface or non-pure titanium alloy
- Severe, uncontrolled diabetes
- Severe bone disease that affects the jaws
- Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and treatment with bisphosphonates (usually due to bone tumors)
Once the 1st phase is over (approximately two months in most cases) the causes of failure vary
- Defective hygiene
- Prostheses on poorly designed implants, without passive adjustment, poorly articulated, etc.
- Animalia or hyposialia (lack or shortage of saliva)
- Impossibility of proper hygiene around the neck of the implants
- Excessive overloads on a few implants.
- As in the first Phase, the infection (Peri-implantitis), treatments with radiotherapy or bisphosphonates (necrotizing bone) etc.
What is the risk of failure in the Osseo integration of dental implants?
If the implant is of good quality and is placed by a qualified and experienced professional, the risk of failure in Osseo integration is only 2%. If it occurs, the solution is to place another implant at no cost to the patient.
What can I do to avoid unnecessary risks?
Require that they provide you in writing all the information about the implants that will be placed. This information must include at least: name of the professional, number of the collegiate, brand and model of the implant and each of the complements that it consists of (type of abutment, anchoring system of the prosthesis to the abutment or to the implant, material of which they are made, etc.).
Avoid the suspiciously low prices. In these cases it is where the greatest number of failures will occur, since the most probable is that the implant is of poor quality and the surgical technique is not adequate.
Do not confuse the rejection of implants (which does not exist) with the possible complications or treatment failure that have nothing to do with an immune response to titanium.
For some, talking about implant rejection is the perfect excuse to justify something that has been done poorly or with poor quality materials. The problem is that, apart from the bad experience, creates confusion in the patient that will prevent him and those around him, enjoy one of the safest, innovative, reliable and predictable treatments that can be done in dentistry.